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Timeline of metal processes, heat treatments and surface technology from 8700 BC to Modern Day



As demonstrated, the working of metal goes back nearly 10,000 years but much of our scientific understanding of how we can change the properties of metal to better suit mankind’s evolving needs has come in the last 200 years. Bodycote is at the forefront of modern heat treatment and continues to collaborate with customers in developing materials to meet or exceed their application requirements.

As a truly global provider of thermal processing services, Bodycote is able to offer a significant advantage to its customers. Through an international network of plants, Bodycote utilises a wealth of knowledge, experience and specialist expertise to deliver quality service when and where it’s needed.

Bodycote’s thermal processing services are comprised of a number of core technologies, which include heat treatments, metal joining, hot isostatic pressing and surface technology.

The global network operates from over 180 locations, with customers benefitting from Bodycote’s comprehensive range of services and expertise. From an industry that dates back 10,000 years, Bodycote continues to develop its heritage and focus on the future.


Interactive History of Metallurgy by Bodycote is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://www.nkfdd.com/.
What is copper?
Copper and tin are used to make bronze
4000 BC - Early copper mining
3500 BC - Ötzi the iceman
Types of bronze
2800 BC - Copper working in China
2500 BC - The advent of brazing
2500 BC - Hattic royal tombs
2000 BC - Bronze in China
1800 BC - Iron working in India
1800 BC - Anatolia creating steel
1600 BC - The Hittite's use of iron weaponry
1500 BC - Shang Dynasty bronze
1400 BC - Hardening processes
1400 BC - East African steel
1200 BC - Tempered martensite
650 BC - Spartan steel
600 BC - Wootz steel
600 BC - Copper Central America
400 BC - Quench hardened steel
AD 99 - The Haya people
AD 800 - Crucible steel invented
AD 1161 - Song China steel
AD 1200 - East Asia 'Bessemer'
AD 1623 - Pascal's Law
AD 1700 - The first UK foundries
AD 1740 - Modern crucible steel
AD 1784 - The puddling process
AD 1846 - The Bessemer Process is patented
AD 1895 - The boriding process
AD 1907 - The electric arc furnace
AD 1908 - Nitriding patent
AD 1911 - Ion implantation discovered
AD 1912 - Flame spraying invented
AD 1913 - The hot isostatic pressing patent
AD 1923 - Anodising process
AD 1931 - The electron microscope is invented
AD 1950 - BOS (Basic Oxygen Steelmaking)
AD 1950 - The invention of plasma spraying
AD 1952 - Electron beam welding
AD 1956 - The first specific Hot Isostatic Pressing patent granted
AD 1960 - HIP applied to defects
AD 1968 - Vaccuum Carburising techniques invented
AD 1980 - HVOF (High Velocity Oxy-Fuel) coating technique invented
AD 1985 - Specialty Stainless Steel Processes (S3P)
AD 1996 - Development of the Corr-I-Dur® thermochemical heat treatment